Understanding Electrodes

The water cell is the heart of an ionizer. It consists of a series of electrodes (plates), each separated by a membrane. The number of plates in a cell typically varies from three to eleven. This section will explain how water cell technologies differ and provide a basic understanding of the most effective technologies.

Electrode/Plate Design

There are three basic types of plates:

  1. Flat Plate: The most common, basic and simple plate design. An exception is the Vesta that uses a new type of flat plating technology
  2. Mesh Plate: The most technically advanced configuration; also the most expensive to manufacture.
  3. Slotted Plate: A less expensive and less effective version of mesh plate technology.

Of these mesh is the most advanced and efficient way to deliver power evenly and consistently. Find out more about the solid plates versus mesh plates and the differences.

Electrode/Plate Composition

Titanium is the base material in every ionizer electrode/plate, because it has proven safe and effective. It is corrosion resistant, has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal, is very durable, and demonstrates the ability to easily change polarity, which is critically important in the ionization process. Ionizer plated are coated with platinum because is has been determined to be the only entirely safe material for use in water ionizers.

Platinum Application Techniques

Long term research and development findings derived from a 1992 study by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare indicate platinum to be the only entirely safe material for use in water ionizer plating/coating.

Two distinct methods - Plating (dipping) and Coating; are employed to apply the platinum surface to the titanium plate:

Plating: Also known as Cladding or Dipping, plating is the process by which a titanium plate is submerged in a platinum solution. This is the most commonly used manufacturing process due to its cost efficiency.

Coating: Also known as Electroplating, coating is a technically advanced and proprietary process developed by Research & Development to achieve a higher degree of consistency and uniformity. A computer controlled robotic arm is used to apply the platinum, under pressure, multiple times and from different angles, which results in the most complete and even platinum coating.

The two biggest differences between plating and coating are:

  1. The amount of titanium crystals produced
  2. The surface coverage characteristics

The following examples visually illustrate two distinct platinum application techniques, Plating (dipping) and Coating (Electroplating).

Plating or Dipping

Both dust and voids are clearly visible

Plate surface from above:

Black spot represent voids
Electrode D Company. Dust particle lowers adnesion
D company
Dipping method

X 6000 (Cross section):

X 6000 (Cross section)
Electrode DH Company.
D/H company
Dipping method

Coating (Electroplating)

Note the distinct vertices (peaks and valleys) and a 3 dimensional crystalline surface, as compared to the inconsistent surface of the dipped electrodes.

Plate surface from above:

No voids, thin spots or inconsistencies
Electrodes plate
(coated platinum)

X 6000 (Cross section):

No voids, thin spots or inconsistencies
Electrodes Emco Tech aluminum plate.
(coated platinum)

Proprietary Plating Process Sets Industry Standard

Proprietary electroplating process features technological advances and enhanced performance characteristics which affect overall ionizer function in the following ways:

  • Superior platinum adhesion
  • Superior conductivity
  • Increased surface area; up to 3x the vertices as smooth dipped plates
  • Optimized water flow dynamics over the plate surface due to vertices (increasing ORP production proven in independent US EPA certified testing)

Prevention of Titanium Leaching

Prevent titanium leaching on the electrodes by two methods:

  1. Complete and uniform coverage. Our coating process surpasses all other processes in the ionization industry to more completely and evenly cover the titanium plates with pure platinum, including all edges and all surfaces.
  2. More efficient use of power. This means we can apply less power more efficiently which creates far less stress on the plate during the electrical load phases. Find out more about plate power

View a certified analytical test result from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Primacy Laboratory for the State of Nevada showing that there is no leaching.

Optimal Results Without Additives

Alkaviva employs proprietary technologies which are able to achieve optimal alkalizing and acidifying results without the use of (potentially harmful) solutions such as salt enhancers.